|عدد المساهمات : 541|
|تاريخ التسجيل : 06/12/2014|
موضوع: رد: مكانة المراة في العراق ومصر مع مقارنة بينهما. مكانة المراة في العراق ومصر مع مقارنة بينهما.
لمقال الرئيسي : الحرب الأهلية قيصر
الرحلة من بومبي بعد Pharsalus ، حسب جان فوكيه
في البداية ، ادعى انه يمكن هزيمة بومبي وقيصر تعبئة الجيوش مجرد ختم قدمه على أرض إيطاليا ، ولكن بحلول ربيع عام 49 قبل الميلاد ، مع قيصر عبور روبيكون وجحافل الغزاة له تجتاح أسفل شبه الجزيرة ، أمر التخلي بومبي روما. تراجعت جحافل له جنوبا نحو Brundisium ، حيث يهدف إلى إيجاد بومبي بقوة متجددة عن طريق شن الحرب ضد قيصر في شرق البلاد. في هذه العملية ، ولا فكر ولا بومبي مجلس الشيوخ أخذ الخزينة واسعة معهم ، وربما التفكير قيصر لن تجرؤ على اتخاذ لنفسه. وقد ترك ذلك مريح في معبد زحل عندما قيصر وقواته دخلت روما.
التملص بالكاد قيصر في Brundisium ، عبرت بومبي أكثر في ايبيروس ، حيث ، خلال حملة قيصر الإسبانية ، بومبي تجمعوا قوة كبيرة في مقدونيا ، وتتألف من تسعة جحافل معززة بوحدات من حلفاء الرومانية في الشرق.  صاحب الأسطول ، المعينين من المدن البحرية في الشرق ، وتسيطر على البحر الأدرياتيكي . ومع ذلك ، تمكن قيصر للعبور إلى ايبيروس في نوفمبر تشرين الثاني عام 49 قبل الميلاد ، وشرع في التقاط أبولونيا .  بومبي استطاع أن يصل في الوقت المناسب لإنقاذ Dyrrhachium ، وحاول بعد ذلك الى الانتظار قيصر بها خلال حصار Dyrrhachium ، الذي قيصر فقد خسر 1000 من الرجال وبومبي عام 2000. حتى الآن ، وبسبب الفشل في تحقيق في هذه اللحظة الحرجة من هزيمة قيصر ، رمى بعيدا بومبي الفرصة لتدمير الجيش قيصر أصغر بكثير. As Caesar himself said, "Today the enemy would have won, if they had had a commander who was a winner" (Plutarch, 65). According to Suetonius , it was at this point that Caesar said that "that man (Pompey) does not know how to win a war." With Caesar on their backs, the conservatives led by Pompey fled to Greece. Caesar and Pompey had their final showdown at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. The fighting was bitter for both sides, and although Pompey was expected to win, due to advantage in numbers, the brilliant tactics and the superior fighting abilities of Caesar's veterans led to a victory for Caesar. He met his wife Cornelia and his son Sextus Pompeius on the island of Mytilene . He then wondered where to go next. The decision of running to one of the eastern kingdoms was overruled in favour of Egypt .
After his arrival in Egypt, Pompey's fate was decided by the counselors of the young king Ptolemy XIII . While Pompey waited offshore, they argued the cost of offering him refuge with Caesar already en route to Egypt; the king's eunuch Pothinus won out. In the final dramatic passages of his biography, Plutarch had Cornelia watch anxiously from the trireme as Pompey left in a small boat with a few sullen, silent comrades, and headed for what appeared to be a welcoming party on the Egyptian shore. As Pompey rose to disembark, he was stabbed to death by his betrayers, Achillas , Septimius and Salvius. Plutarch has him meet his fate with great dignity, one day after his 59th birthday. His body remained on the shoreline, to be cremated by his loyal freeman Philip on the rotten planks of a fishing boat. His head and seal were presented to Caesar, who, according to Plutarch, mourned this insult to the greatness of his former ally and son-in-law, and punished his assassins and their Egyptian coconspirators, putting both Achillas and Pothinus to death. Pompey's ashes were eventually returned to Cornelia, who carried them to his country house near Alba . [ 50 ] Cassius Dio describes Caesar's reactions with scepticism, and considers Pompey's own political misjudgements, rather than treachery, as instrumental in his downfall. [ 51 ] In Appian's account of the civil war, Caesar has Pompey's severed head interred in Alexandria, in ground reserved for a new temple to the goddess Nemesis , whose divine functions included the punishment of hubris . [ 52 ] For Pliny , the humiliation of Pompey's end is anticipated by the vaunting pride of his oversized portrait-head, studded entirely with pearls, and carried in procession during his greatest Triumph. [ 53 ]
Theodatus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820
[ edit ]Later portrayals and reputation
To the historians of his own and later Roman periods, Pompey fulfilled the trope of the great man who achieved extraordinary triumphs through his own efforts, yet fell from power and was, in the end, murdered through treachery.
He was a hero of the Republic, who seemed once to hold the Roman world in his palm, only to be brought low by his own poor judgment and Caesar. Pompey was idealized as a tragic hero almost immediately after Pharsalus and his murder. Plutarch portrayed him as a Roman Alexander the Great , pure of heart and mind, destroyed by the cynical ambitions of those around him. This portrayal of him survived into the Renaissance and Baroque periods, for example in Corneille 's play The Death of Pompey (1642).
Pompey has appeared as a character in several modern novels, plays, motion pictures, and other media. A theatrical portrayal was John Masefield 's play The Tragedy of Pompey the Great (1910). Chris Noth portrays Pompey in the 2002 miniseries Julius Caesar . He appears as a major character in the first season of the HBO series Rome , in which he is portrayed by Kenneth Cranham . In television series Xena Warrior Princess , he is portrayed by the actor Jeremy Callaghan .
[ edit ]Marriages and offspring
First wife, Antistia
Second wife, Aemilia Scaura (Sulla's stepdaughter)
Third wife, Mucia Tertia (whom he divorced for adultery, according to Cicero 's letters)
Gnaeus Pompeius , executed in 45 BC, after the Battle of Munda
Pompeia Magna , married to Faustus Cornelius Sulla ; ancestor of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Claudia Antonia's first husband)
Sextus Pompey , who would rebel in Sicily against Augustus
Fourth wife Julia (daughter of Caesar)
Fifth wife, Cornelia Metella (daughter of Metellus Scipio)
[ edit ]Chronology of Pompey's life and career
106 BC September 29– Born in Picenum
83 BC– Aligns with Sulla , after his return from the Mithridatic War against King Mithridates IV of Pontus ; Marriage to Aemilia Scaura
82–81 BC– Defeats Gaius Marius 's allies in Sicily and Africa
81 BC– Returns to Rome and celebrates First triumph
76–71 BC– Campaign in Hispania against Sertorius
71 BC– Returns to Italy and participates in the suppression of a slave rebellion led by Spartacus ; Second triumph
70 BC– First consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus )
67 BC– Defeats the pirates and goes to Asia province
66–61 BC– Defeats King Mithridates of Pontus; end of the Third Mithridatic War
64–63 BC– Pompey's March through Syria, the Levant, and Judea
61 BC September 29– Third triumph
59 BC April– The first triumvirate is constituted; Pompey allies to Julius Caesar and Licinius Crassus; marriage to Julia (daughter of Julius Caesar)
58–55 BC– Governs Hispania Ulterior by proxy, construction of Pompey's Theater
55 BC– Second consulship (with M. Licinius Crassus), Dedication of the Theatre of Pompey
54 BC– Julia , dies; the first triumvirate ends
52 BC– Serves as sole consul for intercalary month , [ 54 ] third ordinary consulship with Metellus Scipio for the rest of the year; marriage to Cornelia Metella
51 BC– Forbids Caesar (in Gaul) to stand for consulship in absentia
50 BC– Falls dangerously ill with fever in Campania, but is saved 'by public prayers' [ 55 ]
49 BC– Caesar crosses the Rubicon River and invades Italy; Pompey retreats to Greece with the conservatives
48 BC– Caesar defeats Pompey's army near Pharsalus, Greece. Pompey retreats to Egypt and is killed there.
Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura and Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes القنصل من الجمهورية الرومانية
with Marcus Licinius Crassus
70 BC خلفه
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus and Quintus Hortensius
Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and Lucius Marcius Philippus القنصل من الجمهورية الرومانية