بحث حول أحد فائزي جائزة نوبل للسلام باللغة الإنجليزية 2
"Yasir Arafat" redirects here. For the cricketer, see Yasir Arafat (cricketer).
Kunya: Abu `Ammar ( ; 'Abū `Ammār)
Yasser Arafat speaking at the World Economic Forum in 2001
1st President of the Palestinian National Authority
5 July 1994 – 11 November 2004
Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas
Succeeded by Rawhi Fattuh (interim)
3rd Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
4 February 1969 – 29 October 2004
Preceded by Yahya Hammuda
Succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas
Born Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa
24 August 1929
Died 11 November 2004 (aged 75)
Clamart, Paris, France
Political party Fatah
Spouse(s) Suha Arafat (1990–2004)
Children Zahwa Arafat (born 1995)
Profession Civil engineer
Religion Sunni Islam
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (Arabic: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات ; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (Arabic: أبو عمار, 'Abū `Ammār) was a Palestinian leader. He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and leader of the Fatah political party and former paramilitary group, which he founded in 1959. Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel in the name of Palestinian self-determination. Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242. Arafat and his movement operated from several Arab countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Fatah faced off with Jordan in a brief civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon, Arafat and Fatah were major targets of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country.
Arafat remains a highly controversial figure whose legacy has been widely disputed. He was "revered by many Arabs," and most Palestinians, regardless of political ideology or faction, viewing him as a freedom fighter who symbolized their national aspirations. However, he was also reviled, especially by many Israelis, who viewed him as a terrorist responsible for hundreds of bombings and deaths. Critics have accused Arafat of mass corruption, secretly amassing a personal wealth estimated to be USD $1.3 billion by 2002 despite the degrading economic conditions of the Palestinians.
Later in his career, Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the government of Israel to end the decades-long conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991, the 1993 Oslo Accords and the 2000 Camp David Summit. His political rivals, including Islamists and several PLO leftists, often denounced him for being corrupt or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. In 1994 Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, together with Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres, for the negotiations at Oslo. During this time, Hamas and other militant organizations rose to power and shook the foundations of the authority that Fatah under Arafat had established in the Palestinian territories.
In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat became ill, fell into a coma and died on 11 November 2004 at the age of 75. The cause of his illness and subsequent death is disputed