Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham (1847-1922), inventor and American physicist of English origin, teacher of deaf people celebrates for his invention of the telephone. Bell was born on March 3, 1847 in Edinburgh, and made his studies at the universities of Edinburgh and London. He emigrated in Canada in 1870 and the United States in 1871. In the United States, it taught with deaf-mute the language of “! visible word!”. This system, which was developed by his/her father, a Scottish teacher of the name of Alexander Melville Bell, shows how the lips, the language and the throat are used in the articulation of the sound. In 1872, Bell founded a school for the deaf people in Boston (Massachusetts). The school was then attached to the university of Boston, where Bell was named professor of vocal physiology. It was naturalized American in 1882. As of the eighteen years age, Bell had been interested in the idea to transmit the word. In 1874, whereas it worked on a multiple telegraph, it leads to the invention of the telephone. Its experiments with its assistant Thomas Watson were finally crowned success on March 10, 1876, when the first sentence supplements was transmitted: “! Watson, come here, I need you.!” Other demonstrations, in particular that of 1876 for the Exposure of the centenary of the Independence from the United States in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), presented the telephone at the world and led to the creation of the Company of the Bell telephone, in 1877. In 1880, France decreed in Bell the Volta price of a value of 50.000 frank. With this money, it founded the Volta laboratory in Washington (District of Columbia), where, the same year, him and its associates invented the photophone which transmits the word using lines of light. It invented other apparatuses like the audiometer, used to measure the auditive acuteness, the pendulum with induction, used to locate metal objects in the human body, and the first recording cylinder waxes some, introduces in 1886, which is at the base of the modern gramophone. Bell was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society, and was the president of 1896 to 1904. It founded also the Science newspaper in 1883. After 1895 the interest of Bell went mainly on aeronautics. Its study of the flight started with the construction of large kites and, in 1907, it designed a kite able to transport a person. With a group of associates, whose inventor and American aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss, Bell developed the aileron, a mobile section of the wing of plane which controls rolling. They also developed a landing gear with three wheels, which allowed initially takeoff then the landing on a ground of flight. By applying aeronautical principles to the maritime propulsion, its group started to work on the hydrofoils which move above water at high speed. Its “! hydrodrome!” final natural size, built in 1917, reached and exceeded 113 km/h, and during many years, it was the fastest boat of the world. Bell continued his studies on the causes and the heredity of deafness. They led it to undertake experiments in eugenism, in particular in the breeding of the sheep, and to publish a book entitled Lifespan and conditions associated with longevity (1918). It died on August 2, 1922 with Baddeck, where a museum containing a number of its original inventions is maintained by the Canadian government.
The first test withe bell phone